FAQ


  • What are the role of methanogens?

    31/07/17

    Methanogens belong to a group of ancient microbes known as archaea. They have evolved hundreds of millions of years ago and occupy oxygen-free niches such as peat bogs and anaerobic gut systems. In the rumen, methanogens modify the fermentation...

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  • What is enteric fermentation?

    31/07/17

    The rumen: One of the most efficient fibre decomposing systems The rumen first evolved 50 million years ago, giving mammals access to plant foods they would other not be able to digest. The rumen is the first and largest part of the...

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  • Reducing NZ's agricultural GHGs: Methane Inhibitors

    28/07/17

    This publication provides an overview of how we may be able to use compounds that suppress an animal's methanogen population effectively without causing unwanted side effects in their health, welfare or production. It covers some of the...

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  • The structure of agricultural greenhouse gas research funding in New Zealand

    29/03/17

    This publication is a guide to New Zealand's way of funding greenhouse gas research in New Zealand including ways the funds work in partnership to grow New Zealand's understanding and contribution to real solutions to tackle climate change.

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  • How is New Zealand's agricultural GHG research funded?

    28/03/17

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation research funding comes from multiple sources. The growing appreciation of the need to tackle climate change, and the diversity of the challenges that agricultural GHGs present, means there are a range...

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  • Reducing New Zealand's agricultural emissions: Mapping soil organic carbon stocks

    05/12/16

    This publication provides an overview of how we can map the amount of carbon stored in New Zealand soils.

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  • What are micro-meteorological techniques for measuring methane?

    01/09/16

    Other methane measurement techniques provide estimates of emissions from individual animals. This raises the question whether the animals that have been measured are representative of average emissions coming from an entire herd over long...

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  • How do we make sure reduction options work on farms?

    31/08/16

    Farms are complex operations, and changes in one part of the system can affect production and emissions in other parts. It is crucial to understand how individual options to reduce emissions fit into the overall farm system and farming practice:...

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  • How much could DCD help reduce emissions?

    31/08/16

    Nitrification inhibitors slow the conversion of ammonium (NH4+), deposited into the soil in the form of urine, to nitrate (NO3), which leaches into waterways. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is released into the atmosphere as part of this process. DCD...

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  • How much difference could new GHG emissions reduction technologies make?

    31/08/16

    Widespread adoption of an effective vaccine/inhibitor package, together with the breeding of low methane-emitting animals, could deliver large emissions reductions – substantially larger than all other mitigation options combined. If...

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  • What are portable accumulation chambers

    31/08/16

    HOW THEY WORKCommonly, these are a sheepsized transparent polycarbonate box suspended above a race. When a sheep walks into the race, the chamber is lowered over it and the sheep is held inside for about 30 minutes. Air samples are taken during...

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  • What are respiration chambers?

    31/08/16

    How they work Respiration chambers are animal-friendly closed circuit containers in which animals are contained while their gas output is measured. The New Zealand Animal Ruminant Methane Measurement Centre at AgResearch, part-funded by the...

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  • What can NZ beef and sheep farmers do?

    31/08/16

    New Zealand beef and sheep farmers are already part of the solution to limit climate change. On average, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat product (and milk) produced on farm has dropped by about 1% per year for at least the past 20...

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  • What can NZ dairy farmers do?

    31/08/16

    New Zealand dairy farmers are already part of the solution to limit climate change. On average, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk product (and meat) produced on farm has dropped by about 1% per year for at least the past 20 years. ...

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  • What can NZ deer farmers do?

    31/08/16

    New Zealand deer farmers are already part of the solution to limit climate change. On average, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat product (and milk) produced on farm has dropped by about 1% per year for at least the past 20 years....

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  • What GHG reduction options are 2-5 years away?

    31/08/16

    New options for reducing total emissions may become available in the next few years, based on evidence from laboratory studies and small-scale animal trials. The critical challenge for those options is to commercialise them and ensure they are...

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  • What GHG reduction options are more than 5 years away?

    31/08/16

    Some key research supported by the NZAGRC and PGgRc is now at, or approaching, proof of concept stage; other research is still developing fundamental understanding to identify future options. Results from laboratory or experimental settings so far...

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  • What is a national GHG inventory?

    31/08/16

    National inventories The Ministry for the Environment defines New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory as “an annual report of all human-induced emissions and removals of greenhouse gases in New Zealand”. The Ministry must produce...

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  • What is emissions intensity?

    31/08/16

    Emissions intensity is the emissions per unit of product. On average, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat/milk product produced on farm in New Zealand has dropped by about 1% per year for at least the past 20 years.  Technically, the...

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  • What is the SF6 tracer technique?

    31/08/16

    How they work This technique was devised to answer the question ‘How much methane does an animal grazing freely in a field produce over a given period (usually one 24-hour feeding cycle)?’ Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inert gas...

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  • What options are available to limit emissions growth?

    31/08/16

    Options to further enhance production efficiency New Zealand already operates a highly efficient and productive pastoral system. Over the past 20 years, farmers have steadily improved feed and nutrition, animal genetics, pasture management, and...

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  • Why do we need to measure?

    31/08/16

    Agriculture produces greenhouse gas emissions in a number of ways: direct emissions by livestock, emissions from the production of livestock feed, energy use in fertiliser manufacture, farm operations such as milking, refrigeration and housing,...

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  • How can I estimate my on farm GHG emissions?

    01/08/16

    In New Zealand, In New Zealand, farmers can get a farm-level estimate of their greenhouse gas emissions (methane and nitrous oxide, and in some cases also energy use) using commercially available calculators, such as OVERSEER. These...

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  • What is Global Warming Potential?

    01/08/16

    Greenhouse gases such as methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide differ in how long they last in the atmosphere and how effective they are in absorbing heat radiation. To allow emissions of those gases to be compared, emissions are often...

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  • What is OVERSEER?

    01/08/16

    The most well-known calculator for estimating GHG emissions in farm is using is the nutrient budgeting tool OVERSEER®. This uses nitrogen inputs and outputs, as well as the number and productivity of animals, to calculate the unique nutrient...

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  • Reducing New Zealand's Agricultural Emissions: Gibberellins

    18/11/15

    This publication provides an overview of the impact of gibberellins on grazed grasslands and the potential for gibberellins to mitigate farm nitrous oxide emissions.

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  • Reducing New Zealand's agricultural emissions: Efficiency in the whole farm system

    15/09/15

    This publication provides an overview of how the NZAGRC is working with other organisations to understand what efficiencies can be gained on New Zealand's sheep and beef farms.

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  • What is the NZAGRC?

    01/07/15

    The New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre is funded by the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) via its Primary Growth Partnership fund and is a partnership (non-financial) of nine New Zealand research organisations. Read more

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  • Reducing New Zealand's agricultural emissions: Soil Carbon

    10/06/15

    This publication provides an overview of what soil carbon is, how we can measure and determine the changes over time and what New Zealand's current soil carbon levels are. this publication was produced in collaboration with the University of...

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  • Reducing New Zealand's agricultural emissions: How we measure emissions (edition 2)

    28/04/15

    This publication provides an overview of the particular measurement techniques used to provide us with more information on New Zealand's GHG emissions. 

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  • Reducing New Zealand's agricultural emissions: What we are doing (Edition 2)

    28/04/15

    This publication provides an overview of the GHG mitigation work been undertaken in New Zealand.

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  • Reducing our agricultural GHG emissions: How we are getting there

    14/08/14

    Reducing New Zealand's agricultural greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing production gains is what we are working to achieve through the NZAGRC-PGgRc science programme.  Find out more about New Zealand's...

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  • Economic and Policy Implications of Alternative GHG Metrics

    26/11/12

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation strategies requires a way to compare the contribution of individual gases to overall emissions. This is usually done by converting emissions of methane and...

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  • Impacts of Global Climate Change on New Zealand Agriculture

    26/11/12

    Climate change presents multiple challenges to New Zealand. Some are direct - such as climatic impacts on domestic agricultural production, or domestic climate policies - but further, indirect impacts could come from overseas, via trade, such as...

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  • The Impact of Livestock Agriculture on Climate Change

    26/11/12

    There is robust scientific evidence that the climate is changing, and that most of the warming observed over the past 50 years is due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations from human activities. This fact sheet summarises why, and how,...

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