PGgRc is a research consortium that aims to decrease total agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases by 10% per unit of output in 2013 relative to 2004. PGgRc has formed excellent links between the agriculture sector and GHG mitigation research.
Buccal swabbing as a non-invasive method to determine bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial community structure in the rumen
Kittelmann, S., M. R. Kirk, et al. (2015). "Buccal Swabbing as a Noninvasive Method To Determine Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Microbial Community Structures in the Rumen." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81(21): 7470-7483.
Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants.